Category Archives: Research Design

4D Printing

This is a very interesting TEDTalks Technology, presenter by Skylar Tibbits. Some of the main observation how to program physical materials to built themselves and also to be able to  program physical and biological materials to change shapes, change properties and even computes outside of silicon base matter.  A software call caDNAno, that allows you (users) to design 3 dimensional shapes like nano robotics or drug delivery system and use DNA to assembly those functional structures. He basically referring to human skills and shortage  of nano skill technology such as in the Construction and manufacturing industry. In water pipes will have fixed water capacity, if any things changes in the physical environment , the group moves will have to start from starch and take them out and replaced them.A Programe materials that build themselves. A self assembly structures. A definition of Self-Assembly is a process by which  disordered parts build an ordered structure through only local interaction.

What do we need to do this at human skills, we need simple materials. First we need materials and Geometry, that need to be tightly couple with the energy source and you can used passive energy such as Heat, shaking, gravity and then you need smart design interaction, interaction design for error correction,  allow the shape to goes from one stage to another.

  • The project call “The self folding proteins-takes 3d structure of the protein – tencge model of the proteins..trans into 2d.
  • 3d Autonomous self-Assembly: Automonous part that could come together on there own.
  • Self-Assembly line: An installation that build an installation. The idea is could we self -assembly objects
  • 4D Printing Multiple material:
  • Project cyborg., used for NANO-MIT ,program, tram formation
  • The self-Assembly lab in MIT,extreme environment, too dangerous,
    • Infrastructure- Working with Geosyntech, that is developing a new paradigm for piping. Imaging a water pipes could expand and contract.

Source:Skylar Tibbits at TEDTalks LongBeach California (2013): The emergence of 4D Printing, Available:, (Accessed: 20 November 2013)

Writing a qualitative research questions

According to Miles and Huberman (1994), who recommended that researchers write “no more than a dozen qualitative research questions in all  (central and subquestions).  The subquestions,  in turn, can become specific questions used during interviews ( or in observing or when looking at documents). In developing an interview protocol or guide, the researcher might ask an ice breaker question at the beginning, for example, followed by five or subquestions in the study. The interview would then end with an additional wrap-up or summary question or ask”. See “Who should I turn to, to learn more about this topic?? ( Asmusse & Creswell, 1995).

  • “Ask one or two central  questions followed by by no more than five to seven sub-questions. Several subquestions follows each general central question; the subquestion narrow the focus of the study but leave open the questioning “.
  • “Relate the central question to the specific qualitative strategy of inquiry.”
  • “Begin the research questions with the words what or how to convey an open and emerging design.”
  • ” Focus on a single phenomenon or concept: To begin a study  with a single focus to explore in great details:
  • “Use exploratory verbs that convey the language of emerging design. These verbs tell that the study will:
    • Discover (e.g grounded theory)
    • Seek to understand (e.g ethnography)
    • Explore a process  (e.g case study)
    • Describe the experiences (e.g phenomenology)
    • Report the stories (e.g narrative research)
  • “Use these more exploratory verbs that are nondirectional rather than directional words that suggest  quantitative research, such as “affect”, “influence”, “impact”, “determine”, “cause” and “relate.”
  • “Expect the research the questions to evolve and change during the study in a manner consistent  with the assumptions of an emerging design”.
  • “Use open-ended questions without reference to the literature or theory unless otherwise indicated by a qualitative strategy of inquiry.”
  • “Specify the participants and the research site for the study. If the information has not yet been given.”

John W.Creswell:Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approches  (2009), SAGE Pub, Pg 129-133.

Introduction and Reviewing a Research

“The introduction establishes the issue or concern leading to the research by conveying information about a problem….. The introduction needs to create reader interest in the topic, establish the problem that leads to the study, place the study witihin the larger context of scholarly literature, and reach out to a specific audience. ”

An introduction is to justify the importance of the study and to create distinctions between past studies and the proposed one. This may be called “setting the research problem within the ongoing dialogue in the literature”.

“A researcher do not want to conduct a study that replicates exactly  what someone else has studied, also new studies need to add to the literature or to extend or retest  has studied”.

Creswell, John W. (2009)Research Design: Qualitative, quantitate, and mixed methods approaches , SAGE  publisher 3rd ed Pg  97-98- 105